When Khrushchev became the Soviet leader, a new opportunity arose to promote a warmer personal relationship between the leaders of the two countries. During Mao`s second and final visit to the Soviet Union in 1957, in stark contrast to Stalin, Khrushchev flooded Mao with attention and hospitality.  He placed him in an opulent palace that once belonged to Catherine to the greats, supplied him with cigarettes, drinks, fruit, and fell upon him every morning to make sure he was okay.  But Mao in turn showed discontent and disrespect. He slept on the floor, instead of using Catherine`s huge soft bed, refused the dishes brought by the two Russian chefs assigned to him, and threw Khrushchev`s special box into a theatre during the screening of Lake Schwanense.  Mao attributed the improvement in reception to Khrushchev, but to his own stature and growing stature of China in power.  Moreover, Khrushchev`s personality irritated Mao and he regarded him as immature and without deep reflection.  During the visit, Mao Khrushchev told him personally to work on the evil inclinations of his character.  Amid the protests in Tiananmen Square in 1989, Deng and Gorbachev encountered „a handshake, but no hugs.“  Both nations made bilateral diplomatic statements in according the five principles of peaceful coexistence. Both sides agreed that there was no dogmatic model for socialism and that the two nations were socialist societies run by communist parties. In addition, Gorbachev rejected the Brezhnev doctrine on the ussr`s right to intervene in the affairs of socialist nations, but also stated that the USSR was not trying to dominate the People`s Republic of China politically, economically or ideologically.
The groups agreed to make progress in resolving the Cambodian situation with Vietnam. In the economy, the USSR proposed „among other things cooperation in the field of metallurgy, energy and transport, while the Chinese proposed the idea of a wider use of Chinese labour in Siberia.“  The term „handshake, but no hug“ refers to the formalization of bilateral diplomatic relations without the close cross-party relations of the former Sino-Soviet alliance; mutual diplomatic recognition of the two nations and bilateral economic relations have avoided the pitfalls of the failure of past Sino-Soviet relations.  Khrushchev also aspired to American recognition. The United States and the Soviet Union maintained diplomatic relations, but the Soviet leader wanted something greater: America`s recognition of the Soviet Union. It also associated „size“ with economic performance and set targets (many of which were missed) for the U.S. revision in the production of various products and food products.