Where:Pr (a) – observed percentage of the agreement,Pr (e) – Expected percentage of the agreement. All association measures have been more important than all contractual measures that normally take place, since loans are also granted to ambiguous classification pairs. Both estimates of the average weighted cohen-kappa per pair and CCI indicated a significant association [16] between radiologists (0.726 and 0.721 respectively). The Nelson model approach yielded a much lower level of association than the other two approaches (0.587). In this dataset, not all subjects were evaluated with J- 119 advisors. So we had to use a subset of 84 subjects ranked by the 119 advisors (66.2% of all subjects) to calculate Cohen`s Kappa, Fleiss` Kappa and CCI. The nelson`s compliance and association modeling measures, when applied to this subset of subjects, were identical to the second decimal place with their corresponding measurements when applied to the data set. The probability of a disease for the AIM study was low, with 15%, 43%, 31% and 11% of classifications falling into the four categories of ordinals with increasing breast density. The proportion of J-specific agreements is equal to the total number of class j agreements divided by the total number of J or S (j) ps (d) ——–. (12) Sposs (j) Kappa is very easy to calculate because the software is available for this purpose, and is suitable to verify that the agreement exceeds random levels. However, there are questions about the share of chance or expected consent, that is, the proportion of time that evaluators would accept by chance. This term is only relevant where councillors are independent, but the apparent lack of independence calls into question their relevance. The dissent is 14/16 or 0.875.

The disagreement is due to the quantity, because the assignment is optimal. Kappa is 0.01. A much simpler way to solve this problem is described below. Positive agreement and negative agreement We can also calculate the agreement observed separately for each rating category. The resulting indices are generically referred to as the shares of specific agreements (Ciccetti – Feinstein, 1990; Spitzer – Fleiss, 1974). With regard to binary ratings, there are two such indices, a positive agreement (PA) and a negative agreement (NA). They are calculated as follows: 2a 2d PA – ———-; NA – ———-.